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    技術究竟如何影響戶外 其它
    作者:Kinetic
    時間:2014-09-24
    技術究竟如何影響戶外
    How’s Technology Impacting Out-of-Home
    來源:Kinetic
    While technological innovation is widely regarded as an important driver of change in the advertising business, assessing the likely impact of new technologies is difficult and often confusing. At a minimum, evaluation of developments requires a sound understanding of the communications system in question and the role of various technologies within it.
    The out-of-home channel encompasses an array of media that exploit the presence of people in public places to deliver commercial messages, often leveraging the physical and social contours of the environments in which these messages are received.
    Until late in the 20th century, static signs of various sizes and formats were the most prevalent of these. While storefronts and other forms of on-premise signage have long been used by businesses to promote the services or products they sell, the out-of-home media industry emerged to offer them opportunities to advertise on signs away from their places of business. These media functioned primarily as a one-to-many broadcast channel, leveraging people’s habitual movements and behaviors in order to provide recurrent delivery of messages to large audiences. Such “outdoor media” was treated separately from other channels that reach audiences outside of the home — like radio — for a variety of reasons which included different suppliers, communications formats, and business interests.
    Out-of-home is regarded as the oldest advertising medium, but this back-handed compliment can conceal technological ageism. It is true that the basic value proposition of the channel has changed little over time. Certainly its technological backbone has been not been as directly affected as others (e.g. radio, television or print) by the brazen paradigm shift provoked by online media. However, the panoply of technological innovations that has contributed to the evolution of the channel should not be ignored. For instance, the use of illumination (whether neon, front- or back-lighting) is as much a symbol of progress in out-of-home media as it is of the growth of modern urban centers. Over time, hand-painted signs were replaced by materials printed at mass scale, which over time became cheaper and more durable. As new transportation technologies emerged, audiences came to constitute themselves in novel ways – first as rail commuters, then as automobile passengers and air travelers. More recently, digital displays have introduced sound and motion to out-of-home communications.
    Today, developments in mobile computing, audience measurement, digital media trading and myriad other domains shape the channel and the human behaviors that underpin it in important ways. The conceptual framework that follows charts five ways in which technological innovations impact the architecture of out-of-home communications. While each is distinct, these categories are interrelated and many innovations have implications that span more than one of them. In order to be comprehensive, the framework is somewhat abstract; references to technologies past, current and forthcoming are thus interspersed throughout.
    Message Conveyance
    Significance
    Technological innovation has its most visible impact on the out-of-home channel in the figurative “last mile” of the communications process — the point at which messages are conveyed to their audiences in the form of visual (and sometimes audio) content. The technologies involved in the conveyance of messages define where, when and how people receive information in out-of-home environments.
    Context
    Out-of-home media formats have evolved and diversified over time; simple paper-and-paste posters are now used alongside vinyl roadside bulletins and digital display systems. Recent technological advances have driven down the cost of digital screens and facilitated their deployment in new contexts, expanding the communicational capabilities of the channel. Static media formats have advanced as well through improvements in printing, materials and lighting.
    Innovation
    The digital display industry is well capitalized and supports substantial, ongoing investment in basic research and product development. At present, advances are propelled by robust demand for the high quality, energy-efficient, small form factor displays used in mobile devices. While the size of the digital signage market is insufficient to drive the research agendas of major display manufacturers, the sector is nonetheless the beneficiary of innovations developed for other industries.
    Message Distribution
    Significance
    The delivery of communicational assets (whether images, video or sound) to an out-of-home medium involves a number of processes. Distribution networks — physical, virtual or a combination of both — chart a path for these assets from advertiser to audience that originates with design and production and ends with conveyance to an out-of-home audience.
    Context
    Innovation in the distribution of messages promises to improve the efficiency of these processes and grant advertisers greater control over the delivery of content to media. Where the required communicational assets take physical form, that content is printed, shipped, posted and eventually removed from the panels on which they appear. Where these assets are digitally transmitted, they are typically distributed over Internet-Protocol (IP) networks using web-based content-management systems which can also play a role in configuring, scheduling and tracking them.
    Innovation
    The use of digital assets in conjunction with content-management systems (CMS) allows for greater flexibility and efficiency in the trafficking of content. As distribution costs approach zero, media owners are able to sell inventory in smaller increments and more easily coordinate it at scale; they can allow their customers to specify the times when their advertisements appear, vary the locations where they run, and update content repeatedly during the course of a campaign.
    Observation
    Significance
    The value of media to advertisers is contingent on an ability to reach audiences and influence their behavior. Systematic observation is key to substantiating this value. However, the spatially diffuse media and diverse audience contexts of the out-of-home channel have proven a challenge, and available metrics are viewed as inadequate in many markets.
    Context
    Historically, out-of-home audience metrics have focused on manually tallying the people residing in and passing through environments in which media are situated and extrapolating results. Mobility patterns derived from data sources such as roadway sensors form the foundation of large-scale audience measurement currencies for roadside media. To facilitate targeting, cataloging the composition of audiences has received some emphasis. Monitoring and predicting dynamics in audience size or make-up is relatively unsophisticated, as are benchmarks of audience engagement or action as a result of exposure.
    Innovation
    While leveraging the potential of “big data” is a priority in many industries, the sophisticated analytics made possible by advances in data mining and cloud computing have yet to significantly impact the out-of-home sector. Effective utilization of newly available audience data, however, could yield fresh insight into out-of-home audiences and shift advertisers’ perceptions of the channel’s accountability. While new approaches to audience observation such as anonymous video analytics involve dedicated instrumentation, others make use of existing sensor infrastructure, like that of personal mobile devices, in new ways.
    Audience Agency
    Significance
    The out-of-home sector has generally regarded its audiences as passive recipients of messages, offering few opportunities for them to exercise agency by influencing the communications process. Such influence may take the form of audience interaction with media or of content shifting in response to the characteristics or behaviors of the audience. Though the impact of responsive and interactive technologies has been limited to date, their potential to yield deepened audience engagement deserves attention.
    Context
    Printed calls-to-action exhorting passersby to dial telephone numbers represent an early but prominent example of interactivity in out-of-home communications. The impact of the web’s emergence as a mass communications channel has rippled through the media ecosystem, prompting explorations of the possibilities for interactivity in an array of channels. Today, personal mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets provide an important platform for audience interaction outside of the home, allowing people to engage with advertisements by scanning a visual code or touching an NFC tag. Digital screens installed in public spaces that respond to touch or gesture offer another.
    Innovation
    New computer interfaces are being developed to deliver simpler and more intuitive user experiences. Advances in gesture and voice recognition technologies enable increasingly sophisticated interfaces utilizing these inputs. Technologies like anonymous video analytics create opportunities for subtler forms of interaction; some digital screens can now identify the gender composition of their audiences, for instance, and adjust content accordingly.
    Environment
    Significance
    Place provides the primary contextual frame for advertising messages received in and through out-of-home environments. To exploit the communicational value of the out-of-home channel, media owners and marketers must understand and respond to the characteristics of the places in which these media are deployed.
    Context
    The impact of technology upon the built environment is plainly evident in the skyscrapers, highways and underground rail networks that characterize modern cities. The close relationship between out-of-home media and the urban environment is reflected in the diversity of formats found there — digital screens in elevators, street furniture in public spaces, large billboards along roadways and smaller posters in transit systems.
    Innovation
    Technological advances in engineering and architecture have profound effects upon out-of-home environments, but usually only over the long-term. More immediate impacts are often the result of changes in thinking about how public spaces and transport networks should be configured. For example, shifting attitudes on the roles automobiles, bicycles, and pedestrians have in dense urban environments can lead to infrastructural changes that reshape how people move through cities and affect the media to which they are exposed as they do so。
    技術究竟如何影響戶外
    How’s Technology Impacting Out-of-Home
    來源:Kinetic
    技術革新常被認為是改變廣告傳媒行業的重要助推力,然而衡量每個新技術對廣告行業的影響力總是困難的、甚至是令人懊惱的。至少,評估人員需要很了解傳播系統和其它相關的技術才能做好這項技術評估工作。
    戶外就如同一個囊括各類媒體形式的傳播渠道,在戶外領域有效地接觸到受眾,并向他們傳遞廣告信息。所以,在戶外領域中的技術評估就需要從物理、虛擬兩個方面來進行評估,評估信息在物理、虛擬環境中被傳輸、接收的情況。

    直到20世紀末,各種尺寸、形式的固態標牌是當時主流的戶外媒體形式。安裝在臨街面等其他建筑物上的標牌就早被用于推銷商家的產品與服務,戶外媒體則幫助商家脫離商店本身來進行廣告宣傳。一開始,戶外只是一個“一對多”的傳播渠道,通過衡量人們的生活軌跡和習慣,從而周而復始地向受眾群傳遞信息。這樣的戶外與其他傳播模式(如廣播)能明顯地區分開來,因為它們存在不同的器材商、傳播模式和商業利益。

    戶外媒體是最古老的媒體形式,但是具有諷刺意味的“恭維”卻透露出戶外被其它新媒體形式所排擠的現實。的確如此,隨著時間的推移,戶外基礎性的價值主張改變甚少,但是它的技術支撐沒有像廣播、電視、印刷媒體那樣,受到在線媒體引發的范式轉移所帶來的直接影響。但是,不可否認的是,技術革新對于戶外變革的影響是不容忽視的。例如照明技術的進步,不管是霓虹燈、前置燈還是后置燈數量的增加都是戶外進步的例子。多虧于印刷大牌的經濟性和耐用性,漸漸地,印刷大牌開始大規模地取代了手繪大牌。隨著新型交通技術的進步,受眾選擇新的方式外出,從軌道交通、自駕車到航空,不一而足。近來,越來越多的數字顯示屏為戶外帶來了聲像、動態的新傳播模式。

    如今,移動計算、受眾測量、數字媒體交易平臺以及其它技術的進步都重塑了戶外行業。其中,受眾行為的改變是最大的影響因素。以下,我們將介紹5個方面的技術革新,它們都深刻地影響了戶外傳播模式。雖然每個方面內容都大相徑庭,但是從某種方面來講,它們又都是相互聯系的,某一方面的革新技術能在其他方面得到應用。為了使內容完整呈現,整個架構的內容可能會有點抽象。并且,我們會對過去、現在、將來的相關技術在此文章中進行介紹。

    信息傳輸
    意義
    技術革新帶給戶外最明顯影響的地方,就在傳播環節中所謂的“最后一公里”,即信息以視頻、聲頻內容方式傳遞給受眾的終端。其中的技術則在某種程度上定義了戶外受眾在哪、在什么時候、怎樣來接受這些信息。

    內容
    戶外媒體形式變得越來越多樣化,傳統的紙質海報被乙烯基海報、甚至被數字顯示屏所取代。如今的技術進步能把數字屏的價格降到很低,大大方便了部署、更新顯示屏的工作并能擴大戶外媒體的傳播能力。當然,隨著印刷、材料、照明技術的進步,一些固態媒體形式也有了不少進步。

    革新
    數字顯示屏行業擁有良好的資金運作,并投入了大量資金于基礎研究和產品開發上。如今,移動設備對高質量、高能效小型顯示屏的需求強勁,這也推動了數字戶外的發展。雖然數字標牌市場規模還不能滿足顯示屏生產商的研究計劃預算,但是其它行業的這類技術進步無疑為本行業也帶來了益處。

    信息分發
    意義
    把信息(圖片、視頻、聲頻)傳輸到戶外媒體終端包括多個流程。分發網絡(包括物理、虛擬或者兩者相結合的意義層面)需要描繪出一條從廣告主到受眾的傳輸路線圖,從設計與制作開始,以信息傳遞給戶外受眾為結束。

    內容
    在信息分配方面的技術革新能大大提高信息傳輸過程的效率,賦予廣告主控制信息內容傳輸的能力。從物理層面來看,信息分配是指信息內容被印刷、運輸、粘貼、更換的整個過程;從虛擬的層面來看,信息分配就是指基于網絡內容管理系統,信息通過IP網絡虛擬地進行傳輸的過程,并且這些信息數據能被重塑、組織、追蹤。

    革新
    有了內容管理系統(CMS)的幫助,對于信息內容的處理變得更加靈活、高效。隨著信息分發成本降低到零,媒體主們能夠更靈活地出售媒體資源并且更加容易地進行規模化運作。同時,他們能讓客戶設定廣告出現的確切時間,變換廣告出現的地點,不斷地更新廣告內容等。

    監測
    意義
    對于廣告主而言,戶外媒體的價值在于能到達受眾并能影響他們的行為。系統化的監測是媒體價值實體化的關鍵。但是,空間分散的媒體資源和多樣的受眾群給戶外帶來了不少挑戰,同時受眾測量標準也嚴重缺乏。

    內容
    在以前,戶外受眾測量主要是通過人工計算的方法,來記錄停留和經過廣告牌的人數,最后推斷出相應結果。如今,基于路邊的感應器,就能搜集到數據資源,得到人群流動模式,形成針對路邊媒體的大規模受眾測量貨幣。對于受眾群體的定位、分析工作已得到業內的些許重視,對受眾群的監控、預測受眾規模與構成的動態數據都不再算是難事,就像從曝光率來推導受眾參與、反應的基準數據一樣。

    革新
    在許多行業里,應用大數據的潛力已變成了首要任務。由于數據采集、云技術的進步使得復雜的分析過程變得可操作,然而這些技術還未對戶外行業帶來很深刻的影響。有效地利用受眾數據能給戶外帶來新的受眾洞察,能改變廣告主對戶外有效性的認識。不記名視頻分析技術就是一種新型受眾測量技術的運用,它需要精細儀器設備的輔助。若與已有的感應設備、移動設備進行結合,它會呈現出新的模式形態。

    信息分發
    意義
    在戶外領域,受眾一直被認為是被動的信息接收方。他們很少有機會來充當信息中介的角色,影響傳播的流程——這種影響可能是以受眾與媒體互動或者內容根據受眾特點與行為來進行相應調整這樣一種形式出現。雖然響應及交互式技術的影響目前還較為有限,但是它能深化受眾參與的發展潛能值得我們的關注。

    內容
    以前的印刷廣告上,若人們對于廣告上的內容有興趣就馬上撥打電話,這就是一個很好的戶外互動的例子。隨著互聯網逐漸變成一個大眾傳播渠道,整個媒體生態系統都泛起了漣漪,同時又促進了各媒體形式對于互動的關注與探索。如今,個人通訊設備如智能手機、平板電腦,為戶外互動提供了很好的平臺。人們可以通過掃描二維碼、接觸NFC標簽來參與到廣告互動中去。在公共空間中,人們與數字屏幕進行的互動也是類似的。

    革新
    研究人員開發出新型電腦界面來迎合受眾更簡化、更感官的用戶體驗,動作、聲音識別技術的進步使得復雜的界面能更好地進行數據輸入。不記名視頻分析技術就是一個互動技術的好例子,其它一些數字屏幕還能識別受眾的性別,從而相應地變換廣告內容。

    監測
    意義
    每個特定的環境都能給戶外廣告內容限定了一個基本的內容框架。為了利用好戶外媒體的傳播價值,媒體主以及相關營銷者們必須理解特定環境的特征并做出相應的反應。

    內容
    技術革新對于固定環境的影響能明顯地從高樓大廈、高速公路、地下軌道等處體現出來。同時,這些環境也體現出了某一現代城市的特征。戶外媒體與城市環境的緊密關系還能從其它方面得以體現,例如:電梯里的數字屏幕、公共場所里的街道家具、路邊的大型廣告牌以及交通工具內的小型海報等等。

    革新
    建筑設計工藝技術的進步使得戶外環境有了很大的變化,但是通常需要很長久的時間才會有效果。希望短暫就看到效果的就需要考慮公共場所、交通運輸網絡應該如何來配置。例如,在擁擠的城市環境中,人們關于汽車、自行車和步行的態度轉變將直接導致公共設施的變化。相應地,人們的出行方式也會被重塑從而影響到媒體傳播形式的改變。

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